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Click on a Part to the left. This will open a page with the sample videos and notes for that specific part. When it comes time to view a sample, you will be able to hide all the non-video parts of the page, making it easy to resize and share screen space with the SMS application.

Note to Users of Safari on OS X (Macs): Some of the sample videos served by YouTube are incompatible with this browser. If you run into this problem, download and use Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome.

Click to View The Training Manual Introduction

The training program you will now see contains 47 speech samples, some of which you will see more than once. They are one, two, and three minutes in length. Some of the samples contain the speech of nonstuttering speakers, but most are from a diverse clinical population of persons who stutter. The speakers vary in age from 4 to 35 and are both male and female. The severity of stuttering ranges from very mild to very severe. Some people who stutter were recorded before they had received treatment, while others were recorded during the course of treatment. For some speakers, Standard American English was not their first language. Each person was videotaped while speaking in monologue in response to topic cards and, occasionally, in response to the camera operator.

In terms of the measurement of speech rate and stuttering frequency, the basic requirements are: a method of rapidly noting the occurrence of each syllable as it's being spoken, and whether it is stuttered; a convenient way to note and sum the total number of syllables spoken and the total amount of speaking time; and a method for calculation of speaking rate in syllables spoken per minute and stuttering frequency in percentage of syllables spoken that are stuttered. In terms of the measurement of speech naturalness, the basic requirements are: an empirical method of periodically rating and recording the naturalness of an interval of speech, and a convenient way to average these ratings for an entire speech sample. We use a 1-9 rating scale, where 1 equals speech that has been judged highly natural, and 9 equals highly unnatural sounding speech (Martin, Haroldson & Triden, 1984).

The system that you're going to learn here accomplishes these requirements. It is the computer-aided counting and calculating software system known as the Stuttering Measurement System, or SMS (Ingham, Bakker, Moglia, & Kilgo, 1999). Now I'll give a brief demonstration of how this system works, and then you'll be ready to start your training.

On the computer screen before you is the SMS data acquisition screen. Assume you are listening to a speech sample spoken by a person who stutters and concurrently operating the SMS.

  • First, depression of the left mouse button signals to the computer that one syllable has been spoken, so one syllable is counted. This is shown in real time on the computer screen in the SYLLABLE box, where the number of syllables counted is shown cumulatively.
  • If you are using a laptop computer without an external mouse, press the corresponding button to record syllables.
  • Depression of the right mouse button indicates that a moment of stuttering has been judged to occur. This is shown in real time on the computer screen in the STUTTER box, where the number of stutters judged to occur is shown cumulatively. The right mouse button should be depressed for the full duration of each moment of stuttering. When one occasion of stuttering is counted, one syllable is added to the syllable count as well.
  • Again, for laptop computers without an external mouse, press the corresponding button to record stutters.
  • In addition, periodically a tone sounds and a 5-second visual signal appears at the bottom left of the computer screen, signaling the listener to make a naturalness rating for the preceding interval of speech. This is accomplished by pressing a number from 1 to 9 on the computer keyboard, where 1 equals speech that has been judged highly natural, and 9 equals highly unnatural sounding speech.
  • The clock at the top left of the screen displays cumulatively the length of time during which data are being collected, and it stops automatically at a preset duration, for example, at the end of 2 minutes.

When data collection for a given speech sample is completed, the computer screen displays the total number of syllables and stutters that were counted. In addition, the computer calculates and displays, for the entire sample, the client's speaking rate in syllables spoken per minute (SPM), the percentage of syllables spoken that was stuttered (%SS), and the average naturalness rating.

In the next paragraph of your workbook is this transcript of a 20-second segment of speech from a 4-year-old boy who stutters. Each syllable spoken is indicated by a dot above the vowel of the syllable. Each moment of stuttering is underlined. The location and duration of the naturalness rating signal, set to end at 20 seconds, is indicated within brackets. Now I'll demonstrate how the SMS is used for online recording of syllables, stutters, and naturalness while the clip of that sample is played. This will give you a picture of the way the system works and of the tasks you’ll be learning.

These data indicate that this boy uttered 39 syllables in this 20-second sample. In addition, six of those syllables were stuttered. Therefore, the speaking rate was 117 syllables per minute with approximately 15% percent syllables stuttered. Naturalness for the entire sample was judged to be 5 on the 9-point scale. These are the kinds of data that you will be collecting by the time you have completed this program.

Start learning how to use the SMS.

Let's set up the system for the first step in your training program. The SMS system offers many options to the user in terms of the kinds of analyses that can be made from these fundamental data collection procedures. These are described in detail in the appendix(below) and in the appendix of your workbook. However, here we'll just talk about the settings that are needed for you to begin.

  • Start by bringing up the SMS program on your computer screen. I have mine set up with an icon on the desktop screen. (Be sure to note the names of the clever people who devised this system!)
  • On the top row you will see several labels. Click ADD SUBJECT; type in 1 as the First Name and sample as the Last Name (for Sample 1); click on “Add” and then Close. Now you have added a file that will store the data for this sample.
  • Next, click on SELECT SUBJECT. Look for Sample 1 SMS, the sample label you just added, and highlight it by just clicking on it. Then click OK. Now you have opened the file in which you want to store the data. Footnote 1
  • Next, click on the Run SMS label in the top row, and select Half Screen Web Mode. Notice that a warning appears reminding you that no other programs should be operating while you are using the SMS. After all other applications (except this browser) are closed, click OK, which will advance you to the next screen of the SMS called the SMS Run Configuration screen. (The other labels on the top row are described in appendix.)

SMS settings that are relevant for your first task.

  • Run Length. The SMS Run Configuration screen allows you to select the parameters you would like to use for a given data collection occasion. A run refers to the duration (in seconds or syllables) for which you would like to record data. For now, set this parameter at 60 seconds by typing 60 in the box (or by clicking on the arrow and selecting 60).
  • Display Timer. Click in the box so that a check mark appears, indicating that this feature is on. This will allow you to see the clock on the screen as data are collected. Run Summary Printout. Ignore this item for now. (Its function is described in the appendix.)
  • Pause Control and Trigger Interval, will also be ignored for now, although these are important features for data collection during conversation samples, so check the appendix for their description.
  • Standard Mousebutton Configuration. Click in the box so that a check mark appears. This establishes the left/top mouse button for counting syllables and the right/bottom mouse button for counting stutters. If you are left handed then you can reverse the mousebutton configuration, but be aware that all further descriptions for the mousebuttom operations will be reversed.
  • Start/Stop Tones. Click the box so that it produces a check mark. This item determines whether tone signals will be heard at the beginning and end of a run.
  • Use Syllable Mode and Syllable Count Target. These will be ignored for now. You may review this important option in the appendix. Display Syllable Counts. Click in the box labeled Continuously. This will allow your ongoing syllable counts to be displayed on the screen.
  • Display Stutter Event Counts. Click in the box labeled Continuously so that your ongoing stutter counts will also be displayed while you are counting.
  • Display Stutter Interval Counts. Ignore this item and consult the appendix for its function. Display Naturalness Rating: Ignore this item for now. We’ll return to it in Part Four.
  • Rate Naturalness and Rating Period and Tone Prompt. Ignore for now. These features will also be described in Part Four.
  • Periodic Display Parameters, Update Period and Display Duration. Ignore these features because we have already chosen to display our data continuously.
  • Use Intervals and Interval Length. Ignore this item, but read about its function in the appendix.

When all of the parameters have been set to your liking, click OK. This advances you to the data collection screen, which you will see as you collect data. At the top left of the screen is the clock, showing :00. At the top right is Sample 1, SMS (the sample name) and the RUN number, which for the time being is number 1. Each time you start another under the same file name, the run number will advance. You can also see that the display is set so that you will continuously see the number of syllables and stutters that you are counting. Leave your computer with this screen showing while you read the instructions that follow. You will come back to it shortly.

Now you are ready to begin Part One, Counting Syllables. For the remainder of the program all of the instructions you will need are contained in the workbook. We hope you enjoy learning to use the SMS and that you acquire an appreciation for the information it provides regarding important speech characteristics of people who stutter. Take this time to read the section on Part One. The workbook will tell you when you are ready to begin Sample 1. At that time, click here and begin the next phase of your training.

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Footnote 1In the future, when you want to return to this file, all you have to do is click Select Subject from the top row, find Sample, 1 in the list of files that have been stored, click on it to select it, and then click on OK. That way, all data collected under this label will be kept in the same file for easy retrieval. Return


This appendix describes all of the options for data collection available in the Stuttering Measurement System (SMS), only a few of which have been utilized in the preceding training program. However, all of the skills acquired in the training program are fundamental to using the various data collection options. These options make the SMS extremely flexible and accommodating to a variety of clinical and research measurement goals.

To fully utilize the following descriptions, it will be helpful to have the SMS on a computer screen accompanying your reading. Begin with the first screen (after the credits have faded).


SELECT SUBJECT.Clicking on SELECT SUBJECT opens the directory of names of persons for whom SMS data have previously been collected. The list is presented in alphabetical order according to last name. If you wish to add more data to a given person's existing file, highlight the name by clicking on it, and then click on OK or touch the Enter key.

NOTE: Throughout the program hot buttons, which can be activated either by clicking on them or by touching the Enter key, are noted by a darkened border.

(Clicking on Cancel will close the directory without a name being selected.) Once you have selected a person's name, you are able to proceed to use of the SMS to collect additional data, which will be recorded in that person's file, or to view previously collected data. (See BROWSE below.)

SMS. Clicking on SMS will bring up the Run Configuration screen, which presents all of the data collection options available. Before this, a warning sign will appear reminding you to shut down on your computer all non-SMS applications before advancing further. After this has been done, click on OK or touch Enter. (Items on the Run Configuration screen are explained below. For now, touch Escape [Esc] to return to the first screen.)

BROWSE. Clicking on BROWSE will open the data file for the selected subject. All data previously collected are included according to the date and time, run number, and duration of the sample. The parameters included are:

  • number of syllables spoken (SYL),
  • number of stutters recorded STUT),
  • number of intervals during which stuttering occurred (SI),
  • average number of syllables spoken per minute (SPM),
  • average number of syllables spoken per minute during stutter-free intervals (SFSPM),
  • \
  • percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS),
  • percentage of intervals containing stuttering (%SI),
  • and average naturalness rating (NAT).

A minus one (-1 or -1.00) will appear in any column for which data were not collected. For example, if the data were not collected in intervals, -1 or -1.00 would appear in the columns labeled SI, SFSPM, and %SI. (Further description and calculation of each of these treatment efficacy measures are included as the last item in this appendix.)

The lower right hand corner of the display offers the user the opportunity to print out any or all of the data stored in the computer for the particular subject by indicating the starting and ending run numbers and clicking on PRINT. (Naturally, your computer must be connected to a printer for this application to function.) CLOSE will closed this data file and return you to the original screen.

ADD SUBJECT. Clicking on ADD SUBJECT allows a new person's name to be added to the directory. If a person's name does not already exist in the directory, this must be done before opening the SMS or the BROWSE components. The person's first and last names are typed in a indicated, and the SMS modifier is already provided. Add stores the person's name in the directory. Close closes this file. Once a name has been added, it is necessary to open the directory and select the name (SELECT SUBJECT) BEFORE CONTINUING FURTHER. So that you will be able to follow the SMS instructions that follow, add a subject name, perhaps your own name or a John Doe, now.

DELETE SUBJECT.Clicking on DELETE SUBJECT opens the directory. To delete all any person's data from the computer, highlight the person's name and click on Delete, or touch the Enter key. Then close the file.


Now we are ready to learn about all of the data collection options available in the SMS. To open the Run Configuration screen, turn off all other applications on your computer, select a subject (as described above), click on SMS at the top of your screen, and indicate OK. The Run Configuration screen will then appear. The top line indicates the name of the subject selected, that this is the SMS program, and the run number that will be recorded.

Run Length. Each individual speaking trial or separate speech sample is referred to as a run. The SMS program has two methods for automatically predetermining the length of a run. The Run Length option allows the user to preset the duration of time for which data will be collected. For example, if a speaker were to be providing a 5-minute long reading sample, the Run Length would be set a 5 minutes (300 seconds). When the reading begins, the person recording the data would press any key on the keyboard to start the clock and begin counting syllables and stutters, etc. until the time expired. The timer can be set for any duration. Clicking on the arrow in the Run Length box opens the box (indicated by the blue color) so that any number of seconds can be inserted by typing in the desired Run Length. It is also possible to select one of the predetermined run lengths y clicking on the up or down arrow and then clicking again to save the desired number (by turning the blue background to white).

Display Timer. Clicking once in the box so that a check mark (3) appears mkeans that the computer screen will show the timer on the screen during data collection, starting at :00 and continuing until the end of data collection. Of course, if the Display Timer box is not clicked, the computer's timer/clock will continue to work, but it will not be shown on the screen during data collection.

Run Summary Printout. Clicking in the box so that a check mark (3) appears means that following the end of the data collection for that run, your printer will produce a printout of the numbers, in the same way that data can be printed out by clicking on BROWSE, as described above. If you wish to have a printout of each run, as it occurs, click here. If you'd rather have one printout of several runs, it is more convenient to obtain that printout through BROWSE, after the data are collected.

Pause Control. Clicking in this box so that 3occurs makes the computer clock stop during data collection whenever the speaker stops talking longer than a predetermined amount of time (i.e., whenever no mouse button presses have occurred for a certain amount of time). This means that the summary data, especially speech rate data, will be based upon actual talking time, rather than elapsed time. Therefore, if the Run Length is set for say, 180 seconds (3 minutes), this means the actual run length will be determined by how long it takes for the speaker to produce 3 minutes of speech. The clock on the screen during data collection will display talking time, not elapsed time, and will stop whenever no mouse button presses are occurring. This option is especially useful, for example, when the speech sample being analyzed is a conversation sample or is from a treatment session with the clinician. The option allows the time utilized by the conversation partner or clinician to be excluded from the data analysis.

Trigger Interval. When the Pause Control is used, it is necessary to indicate the length of a pause that will trigger the clock stoppage. Any interval from 0.1 to 5.0 seconds can be used by typing in the Trigger Interval box the desired number of seconds, or by selecting a number by clicking on the arrow and then clicking on the number until it occurs in the Trigger Interval box and the blue background has been removed. We typical elect 1.3 seconds as our Trigger Interval (therefore, this is the SMS's default interval), based upon findings by Bruce Ryan indicating that naturally occurring pauses in ongoing speech are typically less than 1.3 seconds in duration (Ryan, personal communication, 1993).

Mousebutton Configuration. When this box is checked, depression of the mouse button on the left signals stutter-free syllables, and mouse button presses on the right count stuttered syllables. The occurrence of a stuttered syllable is also counted in the total syllable count (SYL) displayed on the screen during data collection.

Start/Stop Tones. When this box is checked, the computer will produce a brief tone (coinciding with the depression of any key on the keyboard) to signal the start of data collection and another tone when the run has been completed.

Use Syllable Mode. It was mentioned above that the SMS provides two methods for automatically setting the length of a run. The first is specification of Run Length (see above), and the second is Syllable Mode. In the Syllable Mode method the duration of a run is determined by the number of syllables spoken, irrespective of the time required to produce those syllables. For example, one may wish to collect data on 500-syllable speech samples (for example, see Ingham & Riley, 1998). If number of syllables spoken is to be the determiner of the length of a run, the user would 3the Use Syllable Mode box and then select the Syllable Count Target (desired number of syllables) by typing the number into the accompanying box. When Use Syllable Mode is checked, the Run Length option is disabled. These two methods of determining the length of a sample are mutually exclusive. When Use Syllable Mode and Display Timer are both checked, the computer screen during data collection will display the timer, which will stop at the end of the sample, indicating the time that will be used in SPM calculations. When Use Syllable Mode and Pause Control are both checked, the clock will pause whenever mouse button presses have not occurred for the time indicated as the Trigger Interval (as described above). The Syllable Mode can be used with or without the Pause Interval being activated.

(NOTE: Some computers may not be fast enough to stop the run precisely at the selected Syllable Count Target, especially if syllable button presses are occurring very rapidly. One or two extra syllables may be counted.)

Display Syllable Counts (Continuously or Periodically). When either of these boxes is checked, during data collection the accumulating syllable counts (corresponding to mouse button presses) will be displayed on the screen.

Display Stutter Event Counts (Continuously or Periodically). When either of these boxes is checked, during data collection the accumulating stutter counts (corresponding to right mouse button presses) will be displayed on the screen.

Display Stutter Interval Counts (Continuously or Periodically). If intervals are to be used in the analysis of stutter counts, then when either of these boxes is checked, during data collection the accumulating number of intervals judged to contain stutters will be displayed on the screen. Use Intervals (see below) must be checked first; then the Display option will operate.

Display Naturalness Rating (Continuously or Periodically). If naturalness ratings are to be used during data collection, then when either of these boxes is checked the accumulating averaged naturalness ratings will be displayed. Rate Naturalness (see below) must be checked first; then the Display option will operate.

Rate Naturalness. Clicking this box sets the program to accept periodic naturalness ratings, based on numerical ratings indicated via the numbers keyboard. As described in the Workbook, we use Martin et al.'s (1984) 1-9-point scale wherein 1 = highly natural and 9 = highly unnatural and gradations in between are judged accordingly. Typically, ratings between 1-3 are considered within the normal range, with 3 indicating a marginally normal ratings. If the speech sample being rated is relatively short, one naturalness rating made at the end of the completed sample may be adequate. More often, naturalness ratings are made periodically during an ongoing speech sample; the longer the sample, the more appropriate it is to make several naturalness ratings throughout. A given naturalness rating reflects the rater's perception of how natural-sound was the speech of the preceding interval, that is, the period of speech occurring since the last naturalness rating.

Rating Period. The length of the rating interval is selected by typing in a number (in seconds) in the Rating Period box. (We often use 15, 30 or 60 seconds). The length of the previously selected Run Length must be evenly divisible by the length of the Rating Period (e.g., Run Length = 18- seconds: Naturalness Rating Period could be 10, 15, 20, 60 seconds, etc., but not 25 or 50, etc.). When sample length is determined by Syllable Count, the selected Naturalness Rating Period must be a whole number divisor of 30 minutes (again, we typically use 15, 30 or 60 seconds). In these cases it is likely that the sample will end before the last naturalness rating period has been completed. Syllables and stutters counted in that period will be included in the data, but the naturalness rating that would have occurred in that period will be ignored in the data summary.

Tone Prompt. The SMS program presents a visual signal 5 seconds in duration on the screen (NA) to indicate to the observer when to make a naturalness rating. The program does not record any syllables or stutters until a naturalness rating is registered. If the naturalness rating period is exceeded, data collection for the entire run is cancelled. When the Tone Prompt option is checked, the SMS provides an additional auditory cue (a tone) to the listener to signal the beginning of the Naturalness Rating period. This is especially helpful in circumstances where the listener is watching the speaker (as opposed to listening to a speech sample on audio tape and concurrently watching the SMS screen), although it can be distracting to the speaker if SMS data are being acquired in vivo.

Periodic Display Parameters. If periodic display (rather than continuous or no display) of Syllable Counts, Stutter Event Counts, Stuttered Interval Counts and/or Naturalness Ratings are desired, Periodic Display Parameters must be indicated.

Update Period. Type into this box how often (in seconds) you wish to have these cumulative counts displayed. This number must be equal to, or a multiple of, the selected Naturalness Rating Period.

Display Duration. Type into this box the length of time (in seconds) you wish to have the periodic updates displayed. This number must be less than the duration of the Update Period.

Use Intervals. All stutter frequency data are counted and recorded by the SMS on an event-by-event basis. In addition, the SMS offers the option of reporting stuttering frequency in terms of the number and percent of overlaid time intervals that contain stuttering. This option offers at least two advantages. First, it has been shown that higher levels on inter-observer agreement can be obtained when observers are compared regarding the number of intervals of speech that are judged to contain (and not contain) stuttering than when those observers' stuttering counts are compared (Cordes, Ingham, Frank, & Ingham, 1992). Second, intervals of speech that do not contain stuttering can be identified so that stutter-free speech rate, SFSPM (sometimes referred to as articulatory rate) can be estimated (if stutter-free intervals exist in the sample) (see below). When SFSPM data are desired and therefore interval analyses are used, Pause Control should also be activated so as to assure that all stutter-free intervals actually contain speech throughout. The user is free to select any interval duration as long as this number can be evenly divided into the selected Run Length. (If sample length is determined by syllable counts (Syllable Mode), the interval duration must be a whole number divisor of 30 minutes.) In general, the smaller the interval the better in terms of producing findings that are able to reflect even small changes in stuttering frequency. Cordes et al. found that intervals of 3 to 5 seconds were the smallest that were consistent with high inter-observer agreement.


After all the desired options have been selected, click OK (or press Return). The data collection screen will appear and the program will begin when any key on the keyboard is pressed. Therefore, press a start key just as the speech sample to be analyzed begins.
At the completion of a run, the summary data will automatically appear on the screen. At the same time, in the upper right corner a dialogue box will appear that allows the user to:

  • Make another run with the same settings (the default selection),
  • Make another run with new settings, or
  • Return to Main Menu.

If Make another run with new settings is selected (by clicking in the circle or moving the marker to the appropriate circle key by touching the down arrow on the keyboard and pressing OK), the Run Configuration screen appears and changes can be made in preparation for the next run to be scored. If Return to Main Menu is selected, the first screen reappears. Then the user may add or delete a subject, select another subject, browse the data files, print data files, or shut down the program by clicking on the x in the top right corner of the screen.

At any time during data collection, pressing Esc will end a run. When this occurs, the above-described dialog box will appear, also giving the user the option to save or delete the data collected during the partial run.


The data displayed at the end of each run are the same data that are stored in the speaker's name under BROWSE on the first screen of the SMS. A variety of calculations is available, depending upon the options selected from the Run Configuration screen before data collection for a given speech sample. All of the options and calculations are described below.

SYL. Data reported under this heading represent the total number of syllables (non-stuttered + stuttered) counted by the user during a given speech sample. More specifically, SYL reports the number of right + left mouse button presses that occurred from the beginning to the end of the run.

STUT. Data reported under this heading represent the total number of stutters (stutter events/right mouse button presses) signaled by the user during the run.

SI. If Interval analysis has been selected, data reported under this heading represent the total number of intervals in the speech sample that contained at least one stutter. The computer overlays a template of intervals of the preselected duration (say, 5 seconds) across the full duration of the speech sample and calculates the number of those intervals during which one or more right mouse button presses was recorded. SI, then, provides a general estimate of frequency of stuttering in the sample.

SPM.Data reported under this heading represent the average number of syllables (non-stuttered + stuttered) spoken per minute during the speech sample, sometimes referred to as overall speaking rate (Costello & Ingham, 1984; Ingham, 1999; Ingham & Riley, 1998; Perkins, 1975). The Computer uses the formula: number of syllables counted ÷ accumulated time on the clock, to 0.1 minute. To provide a relatively accurate indication of speed of speech, SPM data should be obtained with the Pause Control on so that the denominator in this formula represents the speaker's actual talking time, excluding pauses of significant length.

SFSPM.Data reported under this heading represent the average number of syllables spoken during all stutter-free intervals of speech. Therefore, this number estimates the speaker's articulatory rate (Costello & Ingham, 1984; Ingham, 1999; Ingham & Riley, 1998; Perkins, 1975), uninfluenced by time spent stuttering, and therefore contributes a different dimension of speech rate than overall SPM. The computer uses the formula: number of syllables spoken across all stutter-free intervals divided by the cumulative total time of all stutter-free intervals. In the SMS, the calculation of SFSPM requires the user to have preselected Interval recording and Pause Control so that the denominator excludes pause time where no speech was occurring. One drawback to the calculation of SFSPM is that for some people who stutter, few or no stutter-free intervals exist, thereby obviating the value of this measure.

%SS. This measure, the percent of syllables spoken that is stuttered, is the fundamental indicator of the frequency of stuttering in a sample. The computer uses the formula: number of stutters counted divided by the total number of syllables spoken (non-stuttered + stuttered). In other words, the number of right mouse button presses divided by sum of the number of right and left mouse button presses.

%SI. If the user has preselected Interval recording, the computer can calculate the percent of intervals that contained stuttering. The formula: number of intervals containing at least on right button press/stutter divided by the total number of intervals in the sample. For example, if the sample is 3 minutes in length and 5-second intervals are used, the computer would separate the sample into 36 5-second intervals (12, 5-sec intervals per each minute) and note the number of those intervals that contained at least one stutter, say 12. In this case, the percent of intervals stuttered (%SI) would be 12 / 36 = 33%.

NAT. Data reported under this heading represent the average of all the naturalness ratings made during the sample. For example, if the sample is 3 minutes in length and the Naturalness Rating Period is 15 seconds, 12 ratings would have been made, one every 15 seconds. Assume the ratings were as follows: 5,7,6,5,6,4,5,5,6,5,5,5. The computer would sum these ratings and divide by the total number of ratings made (64 / 12 = 5.3).

This completes the summary of the data recording and analysis calculations available in the Stuttering Measurement System. Questions and comments may be sent to Janis Costello Ingham via email. Please refer to the printed manual for the address. It is found at the end of the appendix there.